ds视讯

刘阳: 高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的思考

ZUOZHE: SHIJIAN: 2018-04-10 DIANJISHU:

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一、高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的现状

近年来,国家出台了一系列关于提高质量的文件,提高高等职业教育办学质量是当前及今后一段时期高职学院的主要任务。教育部关于《高职教育创新发展行动计划(2015-2018年)》明确提出了“发展质量持续提升”“多方参与、多元评价的质量保证机制更加完善”[1]的建设目标。质量已成为“后示范”时期高职院校建设的重点。构建质量保证体系,全面提升高等职业院校办学质量已成为当前及今后一段时期职业院校工作的重点。目前,我国高等职业院校的质量保证体系主要是以政府评估为主的外部质量保证体系,而作为技术技能型人才培养主体的高等职业院校,应该建立以内部质量为主体的高职院校内部质量保证体系。2003年,教育部制订了高职高专人才培养工作水平评估方案,着手对高职高专院校进行人才培养评估试点。2004年,各省启动对所辖高职高专的评估。为做好人才培养水平评估,教育部制订了评估方案,各省级依据方案进行实施,教育部负责定期抽查。2004年8月,教育部成立了高等教育教学评估中心,建立了五年一轮的评估制度,标志着具有中国特色的高等职业教育质量保障体系建设走上了新台阶,我国高等职业教育教育教学评估也走上了规范化、科学化、制度化和专业化的道路。

从现实来看,虽然全国高职院校内部质量保证体系的建设已全面铺开,但实际上还处在实践探索阶段。以湖南省为例,2016年6月,《湖南省高等职业院校内部质量保证体系诊断与改进工作实施方案》提出: “各高职院校要完善高职院校内部质量保证体系,提升教育教学管理信息化水平,形成现代职业教育质量文化。”[2]ds视讯并于2016年7月全面启动省级诊改工作。湖南省教育厅遴选熟悉职业教育、具有管理经验和公信力的职业教育专家、教育研究专家和行业企业专家等组成任期制的省级诊改工作专家委员会。专家委员会在教育厅统筹管理和指导下,开展省内高职院校内部质量保证体系建设指导、抽样复核以及省内诊改工作动态追踪、方案修订和宣传等工作。目前,首届省级诊改专家委员会和专家库组建已基本完成,正在开发、完善湖南省高职人才培养状态数据管理系统,建立湖南省高职院校内部质量保证体系诊断与改进工作专题网站,以便集中发布诊改工作的相关政策和信息。同时,进一步完善高职院校学生专业技能抽查和毕业设计抽查制度,引导高职院校建立常态化的校本级专业技能考核、毕业设计考核和学生综合素质评价等制度,加强高职院校人才培养工作状态数据的组织报送与应用,进一步落实职业教育质量年度报告制度,建立和完善质量预警机制。但是,种种情况表明,湖南省高职院校内部质量保证体系建设尚处在起步阶段,还存在着许多问题,值得ds视讯去探索和实践。

二、高职院校内部质量保证体系建设存在的问题

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(一)内生动力不足——高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的“死结”

长期以来,我国教育改革一直是自上而下展开,学校的各项规章制度都是根据上级教育行政部门所制订的政策、规划等文件而拟订的。也就是说,对于学校的各项工作,上级教育行政部门都有相对应的“模板”供其学习,学校已经习惯于这种传统的自上而下的管理模式。构建内部质量保证体系需要打破这种传统的工作模式和思维方式,要求学校培养自我质量保证的主体意识,落实学院作为质量提高的主体责任,从计划制定、执行、评价、反馈等方面不断改革,促使质量螺旋式上升。但就现实而言,目前,很多高职院校的教职工和学生还不具备这种主观意识。自我诊改的意识内生动力源自于人的主观自觉,正是由于教职工和学生缺乏这种主观自觉,导致质量诊改体系建设的内生动力不足,这正是高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的“死结”。另外,作为内部质量生成的主体,目前,高职院校领导、行政管理人员、教职工和学生还缺乏一种与质量有关的习惯、信念和行为,也就是质量文化意识的缺失。[3]而教职工和学生对于学校质量目标和质量结果的认识和评价是质量文化的重要体现,也是大学质量观的重要内容。[4]显然,大多数高职院校暂时还不具备完整的大学质量观,不具备对学校质量目标和质量结果认识和评价的主动意识。

(二)标准和目标不明——高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的“硬伤”

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(三)组织架构不健全——高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的“软肋”

关于高职院校内部质量保证体系到底要建成什么样,教育部专家给出了指导性意见,就是要围绕“五纵五横一平台”,构建网络化、全覆盖、具有较强预警功能和激励作用的内部质量保证体系。“五纵”就是指决策指挥、质量生成、资源建设、支持服务和监督控制(保证五个层面的工作或事按标准实施,达成即定目标);“五横”就是指学校、专业、课程、教师和学生(五个不同层面具体的工作或事)。[4]

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(四)信息平台建设滞后——高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的“瓶颈”

MUQIAN,GEGAOZHIXUEYUANZHENGZAIYUNXINGDEYOUXINGZHENGBANGONGXITONG、KEYANGUANLIXITONG、XUESHENGGONGZUOGUANLIXITONG、YINGXINGUANLIXINXIXITONG、LIXIAOGUANLIXINXIXITONG、GUDINGZICHANGUANLIXINXIXITONG、JIAOWUWANGLUOXITONGDENGGELEIXINXIXITONGSHIDUOGE,DANZHEIXIEXITONGDADOUSHIDULIYUNXING,DOUSHIYIGEGEDE“XINXIGUDAO”,MEIYOUXINGCHENGTONGYIDESHUJUJIEKOU。DANGJINXINGSHUJUCAIJISHI,YIGESHUJUBIAOKENENGDEFENJIHAOJIGEBUMENTIANXIECAINENGWANZHENG,BUJINBANSHIXIAOLVDADAZHEKOU,ERQIERONGYICHUCUO。MEIYOUXINXIHUASHUJUPINGTAI,JIAOXUEZHUANGTAISHUJUBUNENGDEDAOKAIFANGGONGXIANG,SHUJUYEJIUDEBUDAOSHIYONGHEJIANDU,BULIYUXUEXIAOFAXIANWENTI、JIEJUEWENTI,YEBULIYUSHISHIDIAOKONGHEGAIJIN。

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(五)第三方机构参与不够——高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的“缺陷”

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各行业职业教育教学指导委员会(简称“行指委”)自2010年成立及2012年重组以来,在教育部和有关行业主管部门、行业组织的领导下,紧紧围绕职业教育中心工作,积极发挥研究咨询和指导服务作用,为加快发展现代职业教育做出了重要贡献。[5]但是目前,行指委参与职业教育标准建设,特别是人才质量标准才刚刚起步,行业企业的参与不多,是高职院校内部质量保证体系的评价机制建设中的另一缺陷。

三、加强高职院校内部质量保证体系建设的建议

(一)塑造全员质量文化,营造良好的内部质量保证氛围

质量文化是指在质量管理的过程中,关于质量的意识、道德、行为、制度、责任感以及价值观等,要想真正促进质量的持续改进,最终必然要综合为一种文化现象。[6]在目前职业院校普遍重视质量的大环境下,质量提升应是职业院校全体师生的共同追求,要达到人人重视质量、人人创造质量、人人享受质量的局面,唯有不断形成学校质量文化,引导全体师生认识质量的重要性,增强人人都是质量生成者的主体意识,自觉执行质量标准,积极推进质量建设,才能为高职院校内部质量保证体系的建设营造良好的氛围。

ZAISHIJIANGUOCHENGZHONG,YAOZHUYIZUOHAOLIANGGEFANGMIANGONGZUO: (1)YAOJIFAQUANTIJIAOZHIYUANGONGDENEISHENGDONGLI,LAOGUSHULIQUANMIANZHILIANGGUAN,QUANMIANTISHENGZHILIANGYISHI,ZIZHUKAIZHANZHENDUANYUGAIJIN;YAOYOUBIAOZHUN、YOUXIANGYINGDEGONGZUOZHIDU、YOUKEXUEDEGONGZUOLIUCHENG,BINGBUDUANTISHENGBIAOZHUNNEIHAN,CUJINQUANYUANQUANGUOCHENGQUANFANGWEIYUREN,XINGCHENGYOUXUEYUANZISHENTESEDEXIANDAIZHILIANGWENHUA。(2)YAOMINGQUEYIZHILIANGWEIHEXIN,YIFUWUJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANXUQIUHERENDEQUANMIANFAZHANXUQIUWEIZONGZHI。BUDUANTISHENGJIAOYUJIAOXUEGUANLIXINXIHUASHUIPING,BUDUANCHONGSHIXUEYUANJIAOYUZHILIANGWENHUA,TUIJINJIAOXUEGUANLIKEXUEHUA、GUIFANHUA、JINGXIHUAGUANLISHUIPING,XINGCHENGZIWOYUESHU、ZIWOFAZHAN、ZIWOWANSHANDEZHANGXIAOJIZHI,SHIXIANZHILISHUIPING、RENCAIPEIYANGZHILIANGHELIYIXIANGGUANFANGMANYIDUDECHIXUTISHENG,QUANMIANDACHENGBINGBUDUANCHAOYUEYUANDINGMUBIAO,SHIXIANTONGBUTISHENG。

(二)明确质量标准,健全内部质量保证标准体系

ds视讯BIAOZHUNSHITUIJINZHILIANGZHENGAIDEQIANTIYUJICHU,YESHISHISHIZHILIANGZHENDUANDEYIJUHEGENBENBAOZHENG。ZAI“GAOZHIYUANXIAONEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIZHENDUANCANKAOZHIBIAO(ZUOBIAO)TIXI”ZHONG,BAOHAN5GEZHENDUANXIANGMU,15GEZHENDUANYAOSU,37GECANKAOZHENDUANDIAN,GONGHANGAILEXUEXIAO、ZHUANYE、KECHENG、JIAOSHIHEXUESHENGWUGECENGMIAN。GAOZHIYUANXIAOYAOWEIRAOZHEIXIEYAOSU,DUIXUEYUANCHANGGUIXINGGONGZUOJINXINGXITONGDISHULIYUFENXI,JIEHEZISHENDEFAZHANYUTEDIAN,JIANLIXUEXIAO、ZHUANYE、KECHENG、JIAOSHIHEXUESHENGDENGWUGEBUTONGCENGMIANDEBIAOZHUNLIAN。JUTILAISHUO,ZHUYAOSHI: (1)ZHIDINGXUEYUANGEZHUANYEJIANSHEGUIHUA,WANSHANZHUANYERENCAIPEIYANGFANGAN;(2)ZHIDINGKECHENGJIANSHEGUIHUA,JIANLIKECHENGBIAOZHUN;(3)ZHIDINGSHIZIJIANSHEGUIHUA,WANSHANSHIZIFAZHANBIAOZHUN;(4)ZHIDINGXUESHENGPEIYANGGUIHUA,MINGQUEXUESHENGFAZHANZHILIANGBIAOZHUN。XUEXIAO、ZHUANYE、KECHENG、JIAOSHIHEXUESHENGWUGEBUTONGCENGMIANDEZHILIANGBIAOZHUNLIAN,JIXIANGDUIDULI,YOUXIANGHUGUANLIAN,XINGCHENGYIGEWANGZHUANGJIEGOUDEZHILIANGBAOZHENGBIAOZHUNTIXI。

(三)健全组织机构,构建内部质量保证体系运行机制

MUQIAN,DABUFENGAOZHIYUANXIAOCHENGLILESHISHINEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIZHENDUANYUGAIJINGONGZUODEZUIGAOLINGDAOJIGOU——NEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGWEIYUANHUI(JIANCHENGWEI“WEIYUANHUI”),YIBAOZHANGZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIDEYUNXING。CONGZUZHIJIAGOULAIKAN,DABUFENXUEYUANSHIYOUYUANZHANGHUOSHUJIDANRENWEIYUANHUIZHUREN,QITAYUANLINGDAOWEICHENGYUAN。WEIYUANHUIZHUYAOFUZEZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIDINGCENGSHEJI,ZHENGTIGUIHUA,SHENDINGZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIZHENDUANYUGAIJINGONGZUOGUIHUA(FANGAN);SHENDINGGECENGJINEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGMUBIAOHEBIAOZHUN,SHENDINGZHILIANGSHIGUCHULIJIEGUO;JIESHOUNEIBUZHILIANGXINXIFANKUI,DIAOKONGYINGXIANGNEIBUZHILIANGGUANJIANYINSU,BAOZHANGNEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIYUNXINGSHUNCHANG。WEIYUANHUIXIASHEZHILIANGGUANLIBANGONGSHI,RENMINGZHUANZHIBANGONGSHIZHUREN,BANGONGSHICHENGYUANZEYOUGEXIANGGUANZHINENGBUMENFUZERENJIANREN。ZHILIANGGUANLIBANGONGSHIDEZHUYAOZHIZESHI: (1)FUZEZUZHI、XIEDIAOXUEYUANNEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIJIANSHEGONGZUO;(2)ZHIDINGXUEYUANNEIBUZHILIANGTIXIZHENDUANYUGAIJINGONGZUOGUIHUA、GONGZUOFANGAN;(3)ZHIDINGMUBIAOKAOHEYUJIXIAOJIANGLIZHIDU;(4)ZUZHIGEZHUANXIANGGONGZUOXIAOZUKAIZHANZHENGAIGONGZUO,ZUZHIKAIZHANMUBIAOGUANLIYUJIXIAOKAOHEGONGZUO。ZAIZHILIANGBAOZHENGWEIYUANHUIXIASHEZHILIANGBAOZHENGTIXIGOUJIAZU、JIAOXUEZHILIANGBAOZHENGZU、XUESHENGFAZHANZHILIANGZU、SHIZIZHILIANGBAOZHENGZU、FUWUZHILIANGBAOZHENGZU、XIETONGFAZHANZHILIANGZU、ZHILIANGGUANKONGZUDENGDUOGEZHUANXIANGZHILIANGBAOZHENGZU,FUZEXIANGYINGZHUANXIANGGONGZUODEZUZHIXIEDIAOHERENWULUOSHI,GONGZUOGUIHUA(JIHUA)、GONGZUOFANGAN、GONGZUOBIAOZHUNHEGONGZUOZHIDUDEZHIDING、SHENHE、ZHIXING、JIANKONGJIXIANGYINGGONGZUODEZIWOZHENDUANYUGAIJIN,DUDAOGEBUMENANZHAOJIHUA—ZHIXING—JIANCHA—GAIJIN(PDCA)DEBIHUANGUANLILINIAN,QIANGHUARENCAIPEIYANGGEHUANJIEDESHIQIANZHILIANGJIANBIAO、SHIZHONGSHISHIJIANKONG、SHIHOUZHENDUANGAIJIN。TONGGUOGOUJIANCHIXU、BIHUANDEZIWOZHENDUANYUGAIJINGONGZUOJIZHI,CHONGFENFAHUINEIBUZHILIANGBAOZHENGJIZHIDEYUJINGGONGNENGHEJILIZUOYONG,XINGCHENGGUANLIZHIDUYUGONGZUOLIUCHENGYOUJIJIEHEDENEIBUZHILIANGGUANKONGJIZHI,ZUODAOJIANLICHANGTAIHUADEZHUANYEZHENGAIJIZHI、CHANGTAIHUADEKECHENGZHILIANGZHENGAIJIZHI、CHANGTAIHUADESHIZIZHILIANGZHENGAIJIZHI、CHANGTAIHUADEYURENGONGZUOZHENGAIJIZHIHEZHILIANGSHIGUGUANKONGJIZHIDENG。

(四)加强信息化建设,健全诊改工作信息平台

ds视讯JIANSHEGAOSUTONGCHANG、ANQUANKEKAODEXIAOYUANWANGLUOHUANJING,YAOJIAQIANGRUANYINGJIANJIANSHE,YITUOHULIANWANG、YUNJISUAN、DASHUJUJISHU,GOUJIANZHINENGHUAXIAOYUANHUANJING、ZHIHUIXINGJIAOXUEXITONG、HAILIANGHUAJIAOXUEZIYUAN、RENBENHUAJIAOXUEMOSHI、XIAONENGHUAFUWUMOSHI,WANSHANZHENGAIGONGZUOXINXIPINGTAI,WEISHISHENGXUEXITIGONGFUWU,WEIJIAOXUEGUANLIFUWU,WEIZHENGAIFUWU。KAIZHAN“ZHENGAI”GONGZUOYAOYIRENCAISHUJUCAIJIPINGTAIDESHUJUWEIZHICHENG,YISHISHIHEJIEGUOWEIYIJU,WEILEJISHICAIJIDAOZHEIXIEHAILIANGDESHUJUHEXINXI,ZHEIJIUYAOQIUdsSHIXUNYAOCHONGFENLIYONGXIANDAIHUAXINXISHOUDUAN,RENRENDOUZUOYUANTOUSHUJUCAIJIREN,SHIXIANSHUJUPINGTAIDONGTAIHUAGUANLI,RANGSHUJUKAIFANGGONGXIANG,YIJUSHISHISHUJUJINXINGZHENDUAN,JIEHESHUJUJIEGUOZUOHAOGAIJINGONGZUO。MUQIAN,GUANJIANSHIYAOJIANLIXIAOBENRENCAIGONGZUOPEIYANGZHUANGTAISHUJUCAIJIYUGUANLIPINGTAI,ZHIDINGCAIJIYUGUANLIPINGTAIDEXIANGYINGZHIDU,JIAQIANGPINGTAISHUJUDEYINGYONGYUFENXI,TONGGUOCAIJIXIANGGUANSHUJU,FAHUIPINGTAISHUJUCAIJIFANGBIAN、KUAIJIE、ZHUNQUEDENGYOUSHI,DUISHUJUJINXINGSHENDUFENXI、GAIKUOJITILIAN,FAXIANWENTI,TUIDONGZHENGAI。

(五)调动第三方力量,形成多元主体组织多维评价机制

ZHIYEJIAOYUYINGMANZUGERENFAZHANXUQIUHESHEHUIFAZHANXUQIU,ZHEIYAOQIUZHIYEYUANXIAOZHILIANGBUJINYAOJIESHOUNEIBUSHISHENGDEZHENDUANYUPINGJIA,HAIYAOJIESHOUSHEHUIDEPINGJIAYUJIANDU。TONGSHI,ZHIYEJIAOYUJUYOUZHIYEXING、XINGYECHANYEXINGHEJISHUJINENGXINGDENGTEDIAN,ZHEIXIETEDIANYIWEIZHEZHIYEYUANXIAOYAOJINMILIANXIQIYE,YICUJINJIUYEWEIDAOXIANG,DUIJIECHANYE、CHANJIAORONGHE、XIAOQIHEZUO。YINCI,GAOZHIYUANXIAOYAOJIJIDIAODONGDISANFANGLILIANG,XINGCHENGDUOYUANZHUTIZUZHIDUOWEIPINGJIAJIZHI。YIFANGMIAN,YAOTANSUODUOZHONGHEZUOTUJING,SHIXINGYEQIYE、YONGRENDANWEICANYUXUEXIAODEZIWOZHENGAI、SHENGSHIZHENGAIFUHE、ZHUANYEJIAOXUEZHILIANGZHENGAIDENGGONGZUO;LINGYIFANGMIAN,YAOZHONGDIANGUANZHU“ZHENDUANYUGAIJIN”JIEGUO,SHIXINGPINGGUZUZHIZHUTIFENLI,FENBIEZUZHIBUTONGMUDE、BUTONGLEIXINGDEPINGJIA,BANGZHUXUEXIAOJISHIFAXIANWENTIYUCHAJU、SHIXIANYOUXIAODIAOSHIYUGAIJIN。ZHIYOUTONGGUODUOYUANZHUTIZUZHIDUOWEIPINGJIAJIZHI,RANGBUTONGPINGJIAZHUTIZHIJIANXIANGHUBUCHONG、XIANGHUZHIYUE,CAINENGZUODAOZHENGAIGONGZUODEKEXUEXING、QUANMIANXING。

高职院校内部质量保证体系的建设是主动适应经济新常态,大力加快发展现代职业教育,服务中国制造2025的重要途径。[7]开展质量诊改有利于促进高职院校完善治理结构,有利于促进高职院校建立人才培养质量制度保证体系,有利于加快发展现代职业教育。高职院校内部质量保证体系建设,要在明确的标准与目标体系下,在健全的组织架构指导下,通过信息平台完成数据采集、应用与反馈,形成以质量为核心、以制度为保障的科学运行机制,并通过多元主体多维评价进行改进和循环。持续改进,不断提高将成为高职院校质量追求的恒久目标。

ds视讯ZUOZHE: LIUYANG,XIZHANGSHAHANGKONGZHIYEJISHUXUEYUANFAZHANGUIHUACHUCHUZHANG。

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